Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine to what extent that gender serves as moderating variable in the context of consumer-based brand equity model. A total of 525 data was collected through non-probability sampling. Independent t-test was firstly employed. The invariance test was subsequently conducted to make certain whether the components of structural model is remained equivalent across two gender groups. The result indicated the baseline model was typically invariant across gender, except for the causal relationships between brand awareness and brand image, thus indicates gender serves as a moderating variable partially. Males have evaluated lower mean scores as compared to females, but higher value of causal effects in male model. The higher mean scores could be reasonably referred to greater sense towards brands; yet it does not indicate greater value of causal effects. Brand managers have to employ a diverse set of brand awareness strategies across gender for the purpose of enhancing their brand image. They should assign greater efforts of brand exposure programs among female community. However, similar set of branding strategy for perceived quality, brand image and brand loyalty can be implemented as there are invariant across gender.
Authors: Teck Ming Tan, Su-Mae Tan, William Lee, Michelle Bee Fang Ong, Tze Wei Liew
Source: International Journal of Research in Management
Tan, T. M., Tan, S.-M., William, L., Michelle, O. S. F. & Liew, T. W. (2012). Does brand equity model vary between female and male? Result of an empirical investigation. International Journal of Research in Management, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 1-15
Full-text Article: Does gender contribute moderating effect in brand equity model_F