Hierarchical Chain of Consumer-Based Brand Equity: Review From The Fast Food Industry

Abstract: The aim of the study was to fill in the gaps in the discussion of the way in which fast food brand equity is developed. A proposed conceptual framework – Hierarchical chain of consumer-based brand equity – was postulated based on the casual relationships among dimensions of brand equity. A comprehensive and extensive literature review helped to develop a brand equity framework. In the fast food industry, the dimensions of consumer-based brand equity are decomposed into brand awareness, brand familiarity, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust and attitudinal brand loyalty, demonstrated three-level hierarchical chain. Brand familiarity, perceived quality, brand image, and brand trust were proposed to serve as mediating variables of other constructs, indicating direct and indirect relationships among brand equity dimensions.

Authors: Teck Ming Tan, Hishamuddin bin Ismail, Devinaga Rasiah,
Year: 2011
Source: International Business & Economics Research Journal
Volume: 10
Issue: 9
Citation:
Tan, T. M., Hishamuddin, I. & Devinaga, R., (2011), “Hierarchical Chain Of Customer-Based Brand Equity: Review From The Fast Food Industry”, International Business & Economics Research Journal, Vol. 10, No. 9, pp. 67-80.

Full-text Article: Hierarchical Chain Of Consumer-Based Brand Equity_Review From The Fast Food Industry_F

REFERENCES
1. Aaker, D. A. (1991), “Managing brand equity”, New York: Free Press.
2. Aaker, D. A. (1996), “Measuring brand equity across products and markets”, New York: Free Press.
3. Agarwal, M. K., & Rao, V. (1996), “An empirical comparison of consumer based measures of brand
equity”, Marketing Letters, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 237-247.
4. Alba, J. W. & Hutchinson, J. W. (1987), “Dimensions of consumer expertise”, Journal of Consumer
Research
, Vol. 13, pp. 411-454.
5. Angel, F.V.-R. & Manuel, J.S.-F. (2005), “The impact of marketing communication and price promotion on brand equity”, The Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 12 No. 6, pp. 431-44.
6. Back, K. J. (2005), “The effects of image congruence on customers’ brand loyalty in the upper middle-class hotel industry”, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol. 29 No.4, pp. 448-467.
7. Baker, W. J., Hutchinson, W., Moore, D., & Nedungadi, P. (1986), “Brand familiarity and advertising: effects on the evoked set and brand preferences”, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 13, pp. 637-642.
8. Barton, A. W. & Robin, W. (2002), “Handbook of marketing”, London, SAGE publications Ltd.
9. Campbell, D. T. & Fiske, D. W. (1959), “Convergent and discriminate validation by the multitraitmultimethod matrix”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 2, pp. 81-105.
10. Campbell, M.C. & Keller, K. L. (2003), “Brand familiarity and advertising repetition effects”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 30 (September), pp. 292-304.
11. Chaudhuri, A. & Holbrook, M. B. (2001), “The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 65, April, pp. 81-93.
12. Chiou, J. S., Droge, C. & Hanvanich, S. (2002), “Does customer knowledge affect how loyalty is formed?”, Journal of Services Research, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 113-25.
13. Chiou, J.S. & Droge, C. (2006), “Service quality, trust, specific asset investment, and expertise: direct and indirect effects in a satisfaction-loyalty framework”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Vol. 34 No. 4, pp. 613-627.
14. Clarke, S. (2003), “Closing the deal: GM’s marketing dilemma and its franchised dealers”, Business History, Vol. 45 No. 1, pp. 60-79.
15. Cobb-Walgren, C. J., Beal, C., & Donthu, N. (1995), “Brand equity, Brand preferences, and purchase intent”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24 No. 3, pp. 25-40.
16. D’Souza, G. & Rao, R. C. (1995), “Can repeating an advertisement more frequently than the competition affect brand preference in a mature market?”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59 No. 2, pp. 32-47

Dacin, P.A. & Smith, D.C. (1994), “The effect of brand portfolio characteristics on consumer evaluations of brand extensions”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp. 229-242.
18. Daily mail (2010), “Ban on takeaway too close to school” Available at:
http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=2&did=2171972131&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD
&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1288065853&clientId=24792, Retrieved 27 October
2010.
19. Datamonitar (2009), “Fast Food: Global Industry Guide” Available at: http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/c71910, Retrieved 22 September 2010.
20. Delgado-Ballester, E., & Munuera-Aleman, J. L. (2005), “Does brand trust matter to brand equity” Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 187-196.
21. Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., & Grewal, D. (1991), “Effects of price, brand, and store information on buyers’ product evaluations”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 28 No. 3, pp. 307-319.
22. Ehrenberg, A. & Goodhardt G. (2000), “New brands: near-instant loyalty”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 607-617.
23. Erdem, T. & Swait, J. (1998), “Brand equity as a signaling phenomenon”, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 131-157.
24. Esch, F. R., Langner, T., Schmitt, B.H., & Geus, P. (2006), “Are brands forever? How brand knowledge
and relationships affect current and future purchases” Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 98-105.
25. Farquhar, P. H., Han, J. Y. & Ijiri, Y. (1991), “Recognizing and measuring brand assets”, Marketing Science Institute Working Paper Series, Report No. 91-119, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.
26. Feldwick, P. (1996), “Do we really need brand equity?”, The Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 9-28.
27. Flavián, C., Guinalíu, M., & Gurrea, R. (2006), “The role played by perceived usability, satisfaction and consumer trust on website loyalty” Information and Management, Vol. 43 No. 1, pp. 1-14.
28. Flavián, C., Guinalíu, M., & Gurrea, R. (2006), “The role played by perceived usability, satisfaction and consumer trust on website loyalty”, Information and Management, Vol. 43 No. 1, pp. 1-14.
29. Gil R. B., Andre´s E. F. & Salinas E. M. (2007), “Family as a source of consumer-based brand equity”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 188–199.
30. Grewal, D., Krishnan, R., Baker, J., & Borin, N. (1998), “The effect of store name, brand name, and price discounts on consumer’s evaluations and purchase intentions” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 74 No. 3, pp. 331-352.
31. Gursoy, D. & McCleary, K. W. (2004), “Travelers’ prior knowledge and its impact on their information search behavior”, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 66-94.
32. Harris, L. & Goode, M. (2004), “The four level of loyalty and the pivotal role of trust: a study of online services dynamic”, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 80 No. 2, pp. 139-58.
33. Henry T., Catherine C., & Ada L. (2010), “An exploratory study of the relationship between customer based casino brand equity and firm performance.” International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 29, pp. 754–757.

Ho, T. & Chong, J. (2003), “A parsimonious model of stockkeeping-unit choice”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 40 (August), pp. 351–365.

Holden, S. J. S. & Vanhuele, M. (1999), “Know the name, forget the exposure: brand familiarity versus
memory of exposure context”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 479-496.
36. Hoyer, W. D. & Brown, S. P. (1990), “Effects of brand awareness on choice for a common, repeat purchase product”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 141-8.
37. Janiszewski, C. (1993), “Preattentive more exposure effects”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 376-392.
38. Kamakura, W. A. & Russell, G. J. (1993), “Measuring brand value with scanner data”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 9-21.
39. Kandampully, J. & Hu, H. (2007), “Do hoteliers need to manage image to retain loyal customer?” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 19 No. 6. pp. 435-443.
40. Kandampylly, J. & Suhartanto, D. (2000), ” Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer
satisfaction and image”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.12 No. 6,
pp. 346-351.

Kayaman R. & Arasli H. (2007), “Customer based brand equity: evidence from the hotel industry”,
Managing Service Quality, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 92-109.
42. Keller, K. L. (1993), “Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57 No. 1, pp. 1-22.
43. Keller, K.L. (2001), “Building customer-based brand equity”. Marketing Management, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 15-19.
44. Kim, H. & Kim, W. G. (2005), “The relationship between brand equity and firms’ performance in luxury hotels and chain restaurants”, Tourism Management, Vol. 26, pp. 549–560.
45. Laroche M., Toffoli, R., Kim, C., Muller, T.E. (1996), “The influence of culture on pro-environmental
knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors: a Canadian perspective”, in Corfman, K.P., Lynch, J.G.
(Eds),Advances in Consumer Research, Association for Consumer Research, Provo, UT, Vol. 23, pp.196-
202.
46. Lassar, W., Mittal, B. & Sharma, A. (1995), “Measuring customer-based brand equity”, Journal of
Consumer Marketing
, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 11-19.
47. Lau, G.T., & Lee, S.H. (1999), “Consumers’ trust in a brand and the link to brand loyalty”, Journal of
Market-Focused Management
, Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 341-370.
48. Lehu, J-M. (2001), “Fidelizar al Cliente”, Piano´s, Barcelona.
49. Leung, L. C, & Bougoure, Ursula-Sigrid. (2008), “The effects of brand relationship on brand consideration and brand equity for services”, Proceedings, Australia & New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference (ANZMAC), University of Western Sydney, Sydney, December.
50. Loken, B., & Roedder J. D. (1993), “Diluting brand beliefs: When do brand extensions have a negative
impact?” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57 No. 3, pp. 71-84.
51. Macdonald, E. & Sharp, B. (2000), “Brand awareness effects on consumer decision-making for a common, repeat-purchase product: a replication”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 5-15.
52. Mano, H. & Davis, S. M. (1990), “The effects of familiarity on cognitive maps”. Advances in Consumer
Research
, Vol. 17, pp. 275-282.
53. Marks, L. & Olson, J. (1981), “Toward a cognitive structure conceptualization of product familiarity”, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 145-150.
54. Matzler, K., Grabner-Krauter, S., & Bidmon, S. (2008), “Risk aversion and brand loyalty: the mediating
role of brand trust and brand affect” Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 17 No.3, pp. 154–162.
55. Matzler, K., Grabner-Krauter, S., & Bidmon, S. (2008), “Risk aversion and brand loyalty: the mediating
role of brand trust and brand affect” Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 154–162.
56. Mayer, R., Davis, J. & Schoorman, D. (1995), “An integrative model of organizational trust”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 709-34.
57. Morgan, R. M. & Hunt, S. D. (1994), “The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58No. 3, pp. 20-38.
58. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994), “The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58 No. 3, pp. 20-38.
59. Muller, C. C., & Woods, R. H. (1994), “An expected restaurant typology”, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 35 No. 3, pp. 27–37.
60. Oliver R. L. (1997), “Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer“, New York: McGraw-Hill.
61. Park, C. S. & Srinivasan, V. (1994), “A survey-based method for measuring and understanding brand equity and its extendibility”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 31, pp. 271-288.
62. Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986a), “Communication and persuasion: Central and peripheral routes to attitude change“, New York: Springer-Verlag.
63. Pitta, D., Franzak, F. & Fowler, D. (2006), “A strategic approach to building online customer loyalty:
integrating customer profitability tiers”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 23 No. 7, pp. 421-9.
64. Rangaswamy, A., Burke, R., & Oliva, T. A. (1993), “Brand equity and the extendibility of brand names”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 61-75.
65. Rao, A. R. & Monroe, K.B. (1989), “The effect of price, brand name, and store name on buyers’
perceptions of product quality: an integrative review”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 26, August, pp.
351-7.
66. Rauyruen, P. & Miller, K. (2007), “Relationship quality as a predictor of B2B customer loyalty”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 60 No. 1, pp. 21-31.

Reynolds, T. & Olson, J. (1995), “Identifying a brand’s key equities”, Marketing Science Institute Working Paper Series, Report No. 95-111, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.
68. Roberts, J., Morrison, P., Chandrashekaran, M. & Gordon, A. (2004), “Measuring sources and outcomes of brand equity”, Communication in ANZMAC Conference .(Australian and New Zealand Marketing Conference), proceedings: available at:
http://130.195.95.71:8081/WWW/ANZMAC2004/CDsite/papers/Roberts1.PDF
69. Rosa R. E. & Riquelme H. E. (2008), “Brand equity for online companies.” Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol 26, No. 7, pp. 719-742.
70. Russell-Bennett, R., McColl-Kennedy, J. R., & Coote, L. V. (2007), “Involvement, satisfaction, and brand loyalty in a small business services setting”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 60 No. 12, pp. 1253-1260.
71. Rydell, S. A., Harnack, L. J., Oakes, J. M., Story, M., Jeffery, R. W. & French, S. A. (2008), “Why eat at fast-food restaurants: Reported reasons among frequent consumers”, Journal of the American Dietetic
Association
, Vol. 108 No. 12.

Schlosser, E. (2002), “Fast Food Nation: The bitter truth about fast food”. Available at: http://www.spiritouch.com/en/pdfs/FastFoodNation.pdf, Retrieved 1 December 2010.
73. Sen, S., & Johnson, E. J. (1997), “Mere-possession effects without possession in consumer choice” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 105-17.
74. Sharma, S. (2007), “Fast-Food Branding Influences Preferences.” Available at:
http://www.insidermedicine.com/archives/Fast-Food_Branding_Influences_Preferences_1445.aspx,
Retrieved 1 December 2010.
75. Sichtmann, C. (2007), “An analysis of antecedents and consequences of trust in a corporate brand”,
European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 41 No.9-10, pp. 999-1015.
76. Singh, D. (2007), “Fast-food ads banned from kids’ shows.” Available at:
http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/6/23/nation/18109396&sec=nation, Retrieved 1 December
2010.
77. Smith, R. E. (1993), “Integrating information from advertising and trial: Processes and effects on consumer response to product information,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 30, pp. 204-219.
78. Srivastava, Rajendra, & Shocker, Allan D. (1991), “Brand equity: A perspective on its meaning and
measurement” Marketing Science Institute Working Paper Series, Report No. 91-124, Marketing Science
Institute, Cambridge, MA.
79. Tong, X. & Hawley, J. M. (2009), “Measuring customer-based brand equity: empirical evidence from the sportswear market in China.” Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 18 No. 4, pp. 262–271.
80. Wang H. Z., Wei, Y. J. and Yu, C. L. (2008), “Global brand equity model: combining customer-based with product-market outcome approaches”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 305–316.
81. William D. N. (2000), “Branding in the third millennium”, Marketing Management, Vol. 9, No. 2
(Summer), pp. 64.
82. Woodward, T. (2000), “Using brand awareness and brand image in tourism channels of distribution”,
Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 6 No. 2. pp. 119-130.
83. Yoo, B., Donthu, N. & Lee, S. (2000), “An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand
equity”, Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 28 No. 2, pp. 195-212.
84. Yoo, B. & Donthu, N. (2001), “Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 52 No. 1, pp. 1-14.
85. Yoon, S. J. (2002), “The antecedents and consequences of trust in online-purchase decisions” Journal of
Interactive Marketing
, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 47-63.
86. Zajonc, R. B. & Markus, H. (1982), “Affective and cognitive factors in preferences” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 9 (September), pp. 123-131.